Cristiana Brafman Kittner and Kimberly Goody, FireEye

Many tools and capabilities that have been leveraged in destruction, disruption, and influence operations can be procured in underground forums. While using already developed tools can serve as misattribution tactic, their availability is also notable because it provides off-the-shelf capabilities to nation-states who may not have adequate developmental resources. Looking at past cyberwar operations, we’ll identify the types tools that were leveraged and the cost of acquiring these tools from underground communities.